Fix bugs reported by Fengjing Xiao
[clqr.git] / clqr-conses.tex
blob35c8350e6447e0e083dd3fbbc33db44ba4a00ca6
1 % Copyright (C) 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2018
2 % Bert Burgemeister
4 % Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
5 % document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
6 % Version 1.2; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and
7 % no Back-Cover Texts. For details see file COPYING.
8 %
10 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
11 \section{Conses}
12 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
14 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
15 \subsection{Predicates}
16 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
17 \begin{LIST}{1cm}
19 \IT{\arrGOO{(\FU*{CONSP} \VAR{ foo})\\
20 (\FU*{LISTP} \VAR{ foo})}{.}}
22 Return \retval{\T} if \VAR{foo} is of indicated type.
25 \IT{\arrGOO{(\FU*{ENDP} \VAR{ list})\\
26 (\FU*{NULL} \VAR{ foo})}{.}\qquad\qquad}
28 Return \retval{\T} if \VAR{list}/\VAR{foo} is \NIL.
31 \IT{(\FU*{ATOM} \VAR{foo})\qquad}
32 {Return \retval{\T} if \VAR{foo} is not a
33 \kwd{cons}.
36 \IT{(\FU*{TAILP} \VAR{foo} \VAR{list})}
38 Return \retval{\T} if \VAR{foo} is a tail of \VAR{list}.
41 \IT{(\FU*{MEMBER} \VAR{foo} \VAR{list}
42 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
43 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
44 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
45 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}}{\}})}
47 Return \retval{tail of \VAR{list}} starting with
48 its first element matching \VAR{foo}. Return \retval{\NIL} if
49 there is no such element.
52 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{MEMBER-IF}\\
53 \FU*{MEMBER-IF-NOT}}{\}}
54 \VAR{test} \VAR{list}
55 \Op{\kwd{:key} \VAR{function}})}
57 Return \retval{tail of \VAR{list}} starting with
58 its first element satisfying \VAR{test}. Return \retval{\NIL} if
59 there is no such element.
62 \IT{(\FU*{SUBSETP} \VAR{list-a} \VAR{list-b}
63 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
64 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
65 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
66 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}}{\}})}
68 Return \retval{\T} if \VAR{list-a} is a subset of
69 \VAR{list-b}.
72 \end{LIST}
75 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
76 \subsection{Lists}
77 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
78 \begin{LIST}{1cm}
80 \IT{(\FU*{CONS} \VAR{foo} \VAR{bar})}
82 Return new cons \retval{(\VAR{foo} \kwd {.} \VAR{bar})}.
85 \IT{(\FU*{LIST} \OPn{\VAR{foo}})\qquad\qquad}
86 {Return \retval{list of \VAR{foo}s}.
89 \IT{(\FU*{LIST\A} \RP{\VAR{foo}})}
90 {Return \retval{list of \VAR{foo}s}
91 with last \VAR{foo} becoming cdr of last cons. Return
92 \retval{\VAR{foo}} if only one \VAR{foo} given.
95 \IT{(\FU*{MAKE-LIST} \VAR{num} \Op{\kwd{:initial-element}
96 \VAR{foo}\DF{\NIL}})}
98 New \retval{list} with \VAR{num} elements set to \VAR{foo}.
101 \IT{(\FU*{LIST-LENGTH} \VAR{list})}
102 {\retval{Length} of \VAR{list};
103 \retval{\NIL} for circular \VAR{list}.
106 \IT{(\FU*{CAR} \VAR{list})\qquad\qquad}
108 \retval{Car of \VAR{list}} or \retval{\NIL} if \VAR{list} is
109 \NIL. \kwd{SETF}able.
112 \IT{\arrGOO{(\FU*{CDR} \VAR{ list})\qquad\\
113 (\FU*{REST} \VAR{ list})}{.}}
115 \retval{Cdr of \VAR{list}} or \retval{\NIL} if \VAR{list}
116 is \NIL. \kwd{SETF}able.
119 \IT{(\FU*{NTHCDR} \VAR{n list})}
120 {Return \retval{tail of \VAR{list}} after calling \FU{cdr} \VAR{n} times.
123 \IT{(\Goo{\FU*{FIRST}\XOR\FU*{SECOND}\XOR\FU*{THIRD}\XOR\FU*{FOURTH}\XOR\FU*{FIFTH}\XOR\FU*{SIXTH}\XOR\dots\XOR\FU*{NINTH}\XOR\FU*{TENTH}}
124 \VAR{list})}
126 \index{SEVENTH}%
127 \index{EIGHTH}%
128 Return \retval{nth element of \VAR{list}} if any,
129 or \retval{\NIL} otherwise. \kwd{SETF}able.
132 \IT{(\FU*{NTH} \VAR{n list})}
134 Zero-indexed \retval{\VAR{n}th element} of \VAR{list}. \kwd{setf}able.
137 \IT{(\FU{C}\VAR{X}\kwd{R} \VAR{list})}
139 \index{CAAR}%
140 \index{CADR}%
141 \index{CDAR}%
142 \index{CDDR}%
143 With \VAR{X} being one to four
144 \kwd{a}s and \kwd{d}s representing \FU{CAR}s and \FU{CDR}s, e.g.
145 (\FU{CADR} \VAR{bar}) is equivalent to (\FU{CAR} (\FU{CDR}
146 \VAR{bar})).
147 \kwd{SETF}able.
150 \IT{(\FU*{LAST} \VAR{list} \Op{\VAR{num}\DF{\LIT{1}}})}
152 Return list of \retval{last \VAR{num}
153 conses} of \VAR{list}.
156 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{BUTLAST } \VAR{list}\\
157 \FU*{NBUTLAST } \DES{\VAR{list}}}{\}}
158 \Op{\VAR{num}\DF{\LIT{1}}})}
160 \retval{\VAR{list}} excluding last \VAR{num}
161 conses.
164 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{RPLACA}\\
165 \FU*{RPLACD}}{\}} \DES{\VAR{cons}} \VAR{object})}
167 Replace car, or cdr, respectively, of \retval{\VAR{cons}} with \VAR{object}.
170 \IT{(\FU*{LDIFF} \VAR{list} \VAR{foo})}
172 If \VAR{foo} is a tail of \VAR{list}, return \retval{preceding
173 part of \VAR{list}}. Otherwise return \retval{\VAR{list}}.
176 \IT{(\FU*{ADJOIN} \VAR{foo} \VAR{list}
177 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
178 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
179 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
180 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}}{\}})}
181 {Return \retval{\VAR{list}} if \VAR{foo} is
182 already member of \VAR{list}. If not, return \retval{(\FU{CONS}
183 \VAR{foo} \VAR{list})}.
186 \IT{(\MC*{POP} \DES{\VAR{place}})}
188 Set \VAR{place} to (\FU{CDR} \VAR{place}), return
189 \retval{(\FU{CAR} \VAR{place})}.
192 \IT{(\MC*{PUSH} \VAR{foo} \DES{\VAR{place}})}
194 Set \VAR{place} to \retval{(\FU{cons} \VAR{foo} \VAR{place})}.
197 \IT{(\MC*{PUSHNEW} \VAR{foo} \DES{\VAR{place}}
198 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
199 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
200 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
201 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}}{\}})}
203 Set \VAR{place} to \retval{(\FU{adjoin} \VAR{foo} \VAR{place})}.
206 \IT{\arrGOO{(\FU*{APPEND } \Op{\OPn{\VAR{proper-list}}
207 \VAR{ foo}\DF{\NIL}})\\
208 (\FU*{NCONC } \Op{\OPn{\DES{\VAR{non-circular-list}}}
209 \VAR{ foo}\DF{\NIL}})}{.}}
211 Return \retval{concatenated list} or, with only one argument,
212 \retval{\VAR{foo}}. \VAR{foo} can be of any type.
215 \IT{\arrGOO{(\FU*{REVAPPEND} \VAR{ list} \VAR{ foo})\\
216 (\FU*{NRECONC }
217 \DES{\VAR{list}} \VAR{ foo})}{.}}
219 Return \retval{concatenated list} after reversing order in
220 \VAR{list}.
223 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{MAPCAR}\\
224 \FU*{MAPLIST}}{\}} \VAR{function} \RP{\VAR{list}})}
226 Return \retval{list of return values} of \VAR{function}
227 successively invoked with corresponding arguments, either cars or
228 cdrs, respectively, from each \VAR{list}.
231 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{MAPCAN}\\
232 \FU*{MAPCON}}{\}} \VAR{function} \RP{\VAR{\DES{list}}})}
233 % Example of list argument being modified:
234 % (let ((list '((1 2) (3 4))))
235 % (mapcan #'identity list)
236 % list)
238 Return list of \retval{concatenated return values} of
239 \VAR{function} successively invoked with corresponding arguments,
240 either cars or cdrs, respectively, from each
241 \VAR{list}. \VAR{function} should return a list.
244 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{MAPC}\\
245 \FU*{MAPL}}{\}} \VAR{function} \RP{\VAR{list}})}
247 Return \retval{first \VAR{list}} after successively applying
248 \VAR{function} to corresponding arguments, either cars or cdrs,
249 respectively, from each \VAR{list}. \VAR{function} should have
250 some side effects.
253 \IT{(\FU*{COPY-LIST} \VAR{list})}
255 Return \retval{copy} of \VAR{list} with shared elements.
258 \end{LIST}
261 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
262 \subsection{Association Lists}
263 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
264 \label{section:Association Lists}
265 \begin{LIST}{1cm}
267 \IT{(\FU*{PAIRLIS} \VAR{keys} \VAR{values} \Op{\VAR{alist}\DF{\NIL}})}
269 Prepend to \retval{\VAR{alist}} an association list made from
270 lists \VAR{keys} and \VAR{values}.
273 \IT{(\FU*{ACONS} \VAR{key} \VAR{value} \VAR{alist})}
275 Return \retval{\VAR{alist}} with a (\VAR{key} \kwd{.} \VAR{value})
276 pair added.
279 \IT{\arrGOO{(\xorGOO{\FU*{ASSOC}\\
280 \FU*{RASSOC}}{\}}
281 \VAR{ foo} \VAR{ alist }
282 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
283 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ test}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
284 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ test}}{.}\\
285 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}
286 }{\}})\\
287 (\xorGOO{\FU*{ASSOC-IF}\Op{\kwd{-NOT}}\\
288 \FU*{RASSOC-IF}\Op{\kwd{-NOT}}}{\}} \VAR{ test} \VAR{ alist }
289 \Op{\kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}})}{.}}
290 {\index{ASSOC-IF-NOT}\index{RASSOC-IF-NOT}%
291 First \retval{cons} whose car, or cdr, respectively, satisfies
292 \VAR{test}.
295 \IT{(\FU*{COPY-ALIST} \VAR{alist})}
297 Return \retval{copy} of \VAR{alist}.
300 \end{LIST}
303 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
304 \subsection{Trees}
305 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
306 \begin{LIST}{1cm}
308 \IT{(\FU*{TREE-EQUAL} \VAR{foo} \VAR{bar}
309 \xorGOO{\kwd{:test} \VAR{ test}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
310 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ test}}{\}})}
312 Return \retval{\T} if trees \VAR{foo} and \VAR{bar} have same
313 shape and leaves satisfying \VAR{test}.
316 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{SUBST} \VAR{ new} \VAR{ old } \VAR{tree}\\
317 \FU*{NSUBST} \VAR{ new} \VAR{ old } \DES{\VAR{tree}}}{\}}
318 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
319 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
320 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
321 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}%
322 }{\}})}
324 Make \retval{copy of \VAR{tree}} with each subtree or leaf
325 matching \VAR{old} replaced by \VAR{new}.
328 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU{SUBST-IF\Op{-NOT}} \VAR{ new} \VAR{ test } \VAR{tree}\\
329 \FU{NSUBST-IF\Op{-NOT}} \VAR{ new} \VAR{ test } \DES{\VAR{tree}}}{\}}
330 \Op{\kwd{:key} \VAR{function}})}
332 \index{SUBST-IF}%
333 \index{SUBST-IF-NOT}%
334 \index{NSUBST-IF}%
335 \index{NSUBST-IF-NOT}%
336 Make \retval{copy of \VAR{tree}} with each subtree or leaf
337 satisfying \VAR{test} replaced by \VAR{new}.
340 \IT{(\xorGOO{\FU*{SUBLIS} \VAR{ association-list } \VAR{tree} \\
341 \FU*{NSUBLIS} \VAR{ association-list } \DES{\VAR{tree}} }{\}}
342 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
343 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
344 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
345 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}%
346 }{\}})}
348 Make \retval{copy of \VAR{tree}} with each subtree or leaf matching
349 a key in \VAR{association-list} replaced by that key's value.
352 \IT{(\FU*{COPY-TREE} \VAR{tree})}
354 \retval{Copy of \VAR{tree}} with same shape and leaves.
357 \end{LIST}
360 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
361 \subsection{Sets}
362 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
363 \begin{LIST}{1cm}
365 \IT{(\xorGOO{%
366 \arrGOO{%
367 \FU*{INTERSECTION}\\
368 \FU*{SET-DIFFERENCE}\\
369 \FU*{UNION}\\
370 \FU*{SET-EXCLUSIVE-OR}%
371 }{\}} \VAR{ a} \VAR{ b}\\
372 \arrGOO{%
373 \FU*{NINTERSECTION}\\
374 \FU*{NSET-DIFFERENCE}%
375 }{\}} \text{ }\DES{\VAR{a}}\text{ } \VAR{b}\\
376 \arrGOO{%
377 \FU*{NUNION}\\
378 \FU*{NSET-EXCLUSIVE-OR}%
379 }{\}} \text{ }\DES{\VAR{a}}\text{ } \DES{\VAR{b}}\text{ }
380 }{\}}
381 \orGOO{\xorGOO{%
382 \kwd{:test} \VAR{ function}\DF{\kwd{\#'eql}}\\
383 \kwd{:test-not} \VAR{ function}}{.}\\
384 \kwd{:key} \VAR{ function}}{\}})}
386 Return \retval{$a\cap b$}, \retval{$a\setminus b$}, \retval{$a\cup b$}, or
387 \retval{$a\,\triangle\, b$}, respectively, of lists \VAR{a} and \VAR{b}.
390 \end{LIST}
393 %%% Local Variables:
394 %%% mode: latex
395 %%% TeX-master: "clqr"
396 %%% End: