7987405313de3a8779e338129af62f9286c9985c
[git.git] / strbuf.h
blob7987405313de3a8779e338129af62f9286c9985c
1 #ifndef STRBUF_H
2 #define STRBUF_H
4 /**
5 * strbuf's are meant to be used with all the usual C string and memory
6 * APIs. Given that the length of the buffer is known, it's often better to
7 * use the mem* functions than a str* one (memchr vs. strchr e.g.).
8 * Though, one has to be careful about the fact that str* functions often
9 * stop on NULs and that strbufs may have embedded NULs.
11 * A strbuf is NUL terminated for convenience, but no function in the
12 * strbuf API actually relies on the string being free of NULs.
14 * strbufs have some invariants that are very important to keep in mind:
16 * - The `buf` member is never NULL, so it can be used in any usual C
17 * string operations safely. strbuf's _have_ to be initialized either by
18 * `strbuf_init()` or by `= STRBUF_INIT` before the invariants, though.
20 * Do *not* assume anything on what `buf` really is (e.g. if it is
21 * allocated memory or not), use `strbuf_detach()` to unwrap a memory
22 * buffer from its strbuf shell in a safe way. That is the sole supported
23 * way. This will give you a malloced buffer that you can later `free()`.
25 * However, it is totally safe to modify anything in the string pointed by
26 * the `buf` member, between the indices `0` and `len-1` (inclusive).
28 * - The `buf` member is a byte array that has at least `len + 1` bytes
29 * allocated. The extra byte is used to store a `'\0'`, allowing the
30 * `buf` member to be a valid C-string. Every strbuf function ensure this
31 * invariant is preserved.
33 * NOTE: It is OK to "play" with the buffer directly if you work it this
34 * way:
36 * strbuf_grow(sb, SOME_SIZE); <1>
37 * strbuf_setlen(sb, sb->len + SOME_OTHER_SIZE);
39 * <1> Here, the memory array starting at `sb->buf`, and of length
40 * `strbuf_avail(sb)` is all yours, and you can be sure that
41 * `strbuf_avail(sb)` is at least `SOME_SIZE`.
43 * NOTE: `SOME_OTHER_SIZE` must be smaller or equal to `strbuf_avail(sb)`.
45 * Doing so is safe, though if it has to be done in many places, adding the
46 * missing API to the strbuf module is the way to go.
48 * WARNING: Do _not_ assume that the area that is yours is of size `alloc
49 * - 1` even if it's true in the current implementation. Alloc is somehow a
50 * "private" member that should not be messed with. Use `strbuf_avail()`
51 * instead.
54 /**
55 * Data Structures
56 * ---------------
59 /**
60 * This is the string buffer structure. The `len` member can be used to
61 * determine the current length of the string, and `buf` member provides
62 * access to the string itself.
64 struct strbuf {
65 size_t alloc;
66 size_t len;
67 char *buf;
70 extern char strbuf_slopbuf[];
71 #define STRBUF_INIT { 0, 0, strbuf_slopbuf }
73 /**
74 * Life Cycle Functions
75 * --------------------
78 /**
79 * Initialize the structure. The second parameter can be zero or a bigger
80 * number to allocate memory, in case you want to prevent further reallocs.
82 extern void strbuf_init(struct strbuf *, size_t);
84 /**
85 * Release a string buffer and the memory it used. You should not use the
86 * string buffer after using this function, unless you initialize it again.
88 extern void strbuf_release(struct strbuf *);
90 /**
91 * Detach the string from the strbuf and returns it; you now own the
92 * storage the string occupies and it is your responsibility from then on
93 * to release it with `free(3)` when you are done with it.
95 extern char *strbuf_detach(struct strbuf *, size_t *);
97 /**
98 * Attach a string to a buffer. You should specify the string to attach,
99 * the current length of the string and the amount of allocated memory.
100 * The amount must be larger than the string length, because the string you
101 * pass is supposed to be a NUL-terminated string. This string _must_ be
102 * malloc()ed, and after attaching, the pointer cannot be relied upon
103 * anymore, and neither be free()d directly.
105 extern void strbuf_attach(struct strbuf *, void *, size_t, size_t);
108 * Swap the contents of two string buffers.
110 static inline void strbuf_swap(struct strbuf *a, struct strbuf *b)
112 struct strbuf tmp = *a;
113 *a = *b;
114 *b = tmp;
119 * Functions related to the size of the buffer
120 * -------------------------------------------
124 * Determine the amount of allocated but unused memory.
126 static inline size_t strbuf_avail(const struct strbuf *sb)
128 return sb->alloc ? sb->alloc - sb->len - 1 : 0;
132 * Ensure that at least this amount of unused memory is available after
133 * `len`. This is used when you know a typical size for what you will add
134 * and want to avoid repetitive automatic resizing of the underlying buffer.
135 * This is never a needed operation, but can be critical for performance in
136 * some cases.
138 extern void strbuf_grow(struct strbuf *, size_t);
141 * Set the length of the buffer to a given value. This function does *not*
142 * allocate new memory, so you should not perform a `strbuf_setlen()` to a
143 * length that is larger than `len + strbuf_avail()`. `strbuf_setlen()` is
144 * just meant as a 'please fix invariants from this strbuf I just messed
145 * with'.
147 static inline void strbuf_setlen(struct strbuf *sb, size_t len)
149 if (len > (sb->alloc ? sb->alloc - 1 : 0))
150 die("BUG: strbuf_setlen() beyond buffer");
151 sb->len = len;
152 sb->buf[len] = '\0';
156 * Empty the buffer by setting the size of it to zero.
158 #define strbuf_reset(sb) strbuf_setlen(sb, 0)
162 * Functions related to the contents of the buffer
163 * -----------------------------------------------
167 * Strip whitespace from the beginning (`ltrim`), end (`rtrim`), or both side
168 * (`trim`) of a string.
170 extern void strbuf_trim(struct strbuf *);
171 extern void strbuf_rtrim(struct strbuf *);
172 extern void strbuf_ltrim(struct strbuf *);
175 * Replace the contents of the strbuf with a reencoded form. Returns -1
176 * on error, 0 on success.
178 extern int strbuf_reencode(struct strbuf *sb, const char *from, const char *to);
181 * Lowercase each character in the buffer using `tolower`.
183 extern void strbuf_tolower(struct strbuf *sb);
186 * Compare two buffers. Returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater
187 * than zero if the first buffer is found, respectively, to be less than,
188 * to match, or be greater than the second buffer.
190 extern int strbuf_cmp(const struct strbuf *, const struct strbuf *);
194 * Adding data to the buffer
195 * -------------------------
197 * NOTE: All of the functions in this section will grow the buffer as
198 * necessary. If they fail for some reason other than memory shortage and the
199 * buffer hadn't been allocated before (i.e. the `struct strbuf` was set to
200 * `STRBUF_INIT`), then they will free() it.
204 * Add a single character to the buffer.
206 static inline void strbuf_addch(struct strbuf *sb, int c)
208 if (!strbuf_avail(sb))
209 strbuf_grow(sb, 1);
210 sb->buf[sb->len++] = c;
211 sb->buf[sb->len] = '\0';
215 * Add a character the specified number of times to the buffer.
217 extern void strbuf_addchars(struct strbuf *sb, int c, size_t n);
220 * Insert data to the given position of the buffer. The remaining contents
221 * will be shifted, not overwritten.
223 extern void strbuf_insert(struct strbuf *, size_t pos, const void *, size_t);
226 * Remove given amount of data from a given position of the buffer.
228 extern void strbuf_remove(struct strbuf *, size_t pos, size_t len);
231 * Remove the bytes between `pos..pos+len` and replace it with the given
232 * data.
234 extern void strbuf_splice(struct strbuf *, size_t pos, size_t len,
235 const void *, size_t);
238 * Add a NUL-terminated string to the buffer. Each line will be prepended
239 * by a comment character and a blank.
241 extern void strbuf_add_commented_lines(struct strbuf *out, const char *buf, size_t size);
245 * Add data of given length to the buffer.
247 extern void strbuf_add(struct strbuf *, const void *, size_t);
250 * Add a NUL-terminated string to the buffer.
252 * NOTE: This function will *always* be implemented as an inline or a macro
253 * using strlen, meaning that this is efficient to write things like:
255 * strbuf_addstr(sb, "immediate string");
258 static inline void strbuf_addstr(struct strbuf *sb, const char *s)
260 strbuf_add(sb, s, strlen(s));
264 * Copy the contents of another buffer at the end of the current one.
266 static inline void strbuf_addbuf(struct strbuf *sb, const struct strbuf *sb2)
268 strbuf_grow(sb, sb2->len);
269 strbuf_add(sb, sb2->buf, sb2->len);
273 * Copy part of the buffer from a given position till a given length to the
274 * end of the buffer.
276 extern void strbuf_adddup(struct strbuf *sb, size_t pos, size_t len);
279 * This function can be used to expand a format string containing
280 * placeholders. To that end, it parses the string and calls the specified
281 * function for every percent sign found.
283 * The callback function is given a pointer to the character after the `%`
284 * and a pointer to the struct strbuf. It is expected to add the expanded
285 * version of the placeholder to the strbuf, e.g. to add a newline
286 * character if the letter `n` appears after a `%`. The function returns
287 * the length of the placeholder recognized and `strbuf_expand()` skips
288 * over it.
290 * The format `%%` is automatically expanded to a single `%` as a quoting
291 * mechanism; callers do not need to handle the `%` placeholder themselves,
292 * and the callback function will not be invoked for this placeholder.
294 * All other characters (non-percent and not skipped ones) are copied
295 * verbatim to the strbuf. If the callback returned zero, meaning that the
296 * placeholder is unknown, then the percent sign is copied, too.
298 * In order to facilitate caching and to make it possible to give
299 * parameters to the callback, `strbuf_expand()` passes a context pointer,
300 * which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
302 typedef size_t (*expand_fn_t) (struct strbuf *sb, const char *placeholder, void *context);
303 extern void strbuf_expand(struct strbuf *sb, const char *format, expand_fn_t fn, void *context);
306 * Used as callback for `strbuf_expand()`, expects an array of
307 * struct strbuf_expand_dict_entry as context, i.e. pairs of
308 * placeholder and replacement string. The array needs to be
309 * terminated by an entry with placeholder set to NULL.
311 struct strbuf_expand_dict_entry {
312 const char *placeholder;
313 const char *value;
315 extern size_t strbuf_expand_dict_cb(struct strbuf *sb, const char *placeholder, void *context);
318 * Append the contents of one strbuf to another, quoting any
319 * percent signs ("%") into double-percents ("%%") in the
320 * destination. This is useful for literal data to be fed to either
321 * strbuf_expand or to the *printf family of functions.
323 extern void strbuf_addbuf_percentquote(struct strbuf *dst, const struct strbuf *src);
326 * Append the given byte size as a human-readable string (i.e. 12.23 KiB,
327 * 3.50 MiB).
329 extern void strbuf_humanise_bytes(struct strbuf *buf, off_t bytes);
332 * Add a formatted string to the buffer.
334 __attribute__((format (printf,2,3)))
335 extern void strbuf_addf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, ...);
338 * Add a formatted string prepended by a comment character and a
339 * blank to the buffer.
341 __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
342 extern void strbuf_commented_addf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, ...);
344 __attribute__((format (printf,2,0)))
345 extern void strbuf_vaddf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, va_list ap);
348 * Add the time specified by `tm`, as formatted by `strftime`.
350 extern void strbuf_addftime(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, const struct tm *tm);
353 * Read a given size of data from a FILE* pointer to the buffer.
355 * NOTE: The buffer is rewound if the read fails. If -1 is returned,
356 * `errno` must be consulted, like you would do for `read(3)`.
357 * `strbuf_read()`, `strbuf_read_file()` and `strbuf_getline_*()`
358 * family of functions have the same behaviour as well.
360 extern size_t strbuf_fread(struct strbuf *, size_t, FILE *);
363 * Read the contents of a given file descriptor. The third argument can be
364 * used to give a hint about the file size, to avoid reallocs. If read fails,
365 * any partial read is undone.
367 extern ssize_t strbuf_read(struct strbuf *, int fd, size_t hint);
370 * Read the contents of a given file descriptor partially by using only one
371 * attempt of xread. The third argument can be used to give a hint about the
372 * file size, to avoid reallocs. Returns the number of new bytes appended to
373 * the sb.
375 extern ssize_t strbuf_read_once(struct strbuf *, int fd, size_t hint);
378 * Read the contents of a file, specified by its path. The third argument
379 * can be used to give a hint about the file size, to avoid reallocs.
381 extern ssize_t strbuf_read_file(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path, size_t hint);
384 * Read the target of a symbolic link, specified by its path. The third
385 * argument can be used to give a hint about the size, to avoid reallocs.
387 extern int strbuf_readlink(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path, size_t hint);
390 * Write the whole content of the strbuf to the stream not stopping at
391 * NUL bytes.
393 extern ssize_t strbuf_write(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *stream);
396 * Read a line from a FILE *, overwriting the existing contents of
397 * the strbuf. The strbuf_getline*() family of functions share
398 * this signature, but have different line termination conventions.
400 * Reading stops after the terminator or at EOF. The terminator
401 * is removed from the buffer before returning. Returns 0 unless
402 * there was nothing left before EOF, in which case it returns `EOF`.
404 typedef int (*strbuf_getline_fn)(struct strbuf *, FILE *);
406 /* Uses LF as the line terminator */
407 extern int strbuf_getline_lf(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *fp);
409 /* Uses NUL as the line terminator */
410 extern int strbuf_getline_nul(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *fp);
413 * Similar to strbuf_getline_lf(), but additionally treats a CR that
414 * comes immediately before the LF as part of the terminator.
415 * This is the most friendly version to be used to read "text" files
416 * that can come from platforms whose native text format is CRLF
417 * terminated.
419 extern int strbuf_getline(struct strbuf *, FILE *);
423 * Like `strbuf_getline`, but keeps the trailing terminator (if
424 * any) in the buffer.
426 extern int strbuf_getwholeline(struct strbuf *, FILE *, int);
429 * Like `strbuf_getwholeline`, but operates on a file descriptor.
430 * It reads one character at a time, so it is very slow. Do not
431 * use it unless you need the correct position in the file
432 * descriptor.
434 extern int strbuf_getwholeline_fd(struct strbuf *, int, int);
437 * Set the buffer to the path of the current working directory.
439 extern int strbuf_getcwd(struct strbuf *sb);
442 * Add a path to a buffer, converting a relative path to an
443 * absolute one in the process. Symbolic links are not
444 * resolved.
446 extern void strbuf_add_absolute_path(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path);
449 * Strip whitespace from a buffer. The second parameter controls if
450 * comments are considered contents to be removed or not.
452 extern void strbuf_stripspace(struct strbuf *buf, int skip_comments);
455 * Temporary alias until all topic branches have switched to use
456 * strbuf_stripspace directly.
458 static inline void stripspace(struct strbuf *buf, int skip_comments)
460 strbuf_stripspace(buf, skip_comments);
463 static inline int strbuf_strip_suffix(struct strbuf *sb, const char *suffix)
465 if (strip_suffix_mem(sb->buf, &sb->len, suffix)) {
466 strbuf_setlen(sb, sb->len);
467 return 1;
468 } else
469 return 0;
473 * Split str (of length slen) at the specified terminator character.
474 * Return a null-terminated array of pointers to strbuf objects
475 * holding the substrings. The substrings include the terminator,
476 * except for the last substring, which might be unterminated if the
477 * original string did not end with a terminator. If max is positive,
478 * then split the string into at most max substrings (with the last
479 * substring containing everything following the (max-1)th terminator
480 * character).
482 * The most generic form is `strbuf_split_buf`, which takes an arbitrary
483 * pointer/len buffer. The `_str` variant takes a NUL-terminated string,
484 * the `_max` variant takes a strbuf, and just `strbuf_split` is a convenience
485 * wrapper to drop the `max` parameter.
487 * For lighter-weight alternatives, see string_list_split() and
488 * string_list_split_in_place().
490 extern struct strbuf **strbuf_split_buf(const char *, size_t,
491 int terminator, int max);
493 static inline struct strbuf **strbuf_split_str(const char *str,
494 int terminator, int max)
496 return strbuf_split_buf(str, strlen(str), terminator, max);
499 static inline struct strbuf **strbuf_split_max(const struct strbuf *sb,
500 int terminator, int max)
502 return strbuf_split_buf(sb->buf, sb->len, terminator, max);
505 static inline struct strbuf **strbuf_split(const struct strbuf *sb,
506 int terminator)
508 return strbuf_split_max(sb, terminator, 0);
512 * Free a NULL-terminated list of strbufs (for example, the return
513 * values of the strbuf_split*() functions).
515 extern void strbuf_list_free(struct strbuf **);
518 * Add the abbreviation, as generated by find_unique_abbrev, of `sha1` to
519 * the strbuf `sb`.
521 extern void strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(struct strbuf *sb,
522 const unsigned char *sha1,
523 int abbrev_len);
526 * Launch the user preferred editor to edit a file and fill the buffer
527 * with the file's contents upon the user completing their editing. The
528 * third argument can be used to set the environment which the editor is
529 * run in. If the buffer is NULL the editor is launched as usual but the
530 * file's contents are not read into the buffer upon completion.
532 extern int launch_editor(const char *path, struct strbuf *buffer, const char *const *env);
534 extern void strbuf_add_lines(struct strbuf *sb, const char *prefix, const char *buf, size_t size);
537 * Append s to sb, with the characters '<', '>', '&' and '"' converted
538 * into XML entities.
540 extern void strbuf_addstr_xml_quoted(struct strbuf *sb, const char *s);
543 * "Complete" the contents of `sb` by ensuring that either it ends with the
544 * character `term`, or it is empty. This can be used, for example,
545 * to ensure that text ends with a newline, but without creating an empty
546 * blank line if there is no content in the first place.
548 static inline void strbuf_complete(struct strbuf *sb, char term)
550 if (sb->len && sb->buf[sb->len - 1] != term)
551 strbuf_addch(sb, term);
554 static inline void strbuf_complete_line(struct strbuf *sb)
556 strbuf_complete(sb, '\n');
559 extern int strbuf_branchname(struct strbuf *sb, const char *name);
560 extern int strbuf_check_branch_ref(struct strbuf *sb, const char *name);
562 extern void strbuf_addstr_urlencode(struct strbuf *, const char *,
563 int reserved);
565 __attribute__((format (printf,1,2)))
566 extern int printf_ln(const char *fmt, ...);
567 __attribute__((format (printf,2,3)))
568 extern int fprintf_ln(FILE *fp, const char *fmt, ...);
570 char *xstrdup_tolower(const char *);
573 * Create a newly allocated string using printf format. You can do this easily
574 * with a strbuf, but this provides a shortcut to save a few lines.
576 __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 0)))
577 char *xstrvfmt(const char *fmt, va_list ap);
578 __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
579 char *xstrfmt(const char *fmt, ...);
581 #endif /* STRBUF_H */